Saturday, January 25, 2020

Luck Be a Lady: Ciroc Vodka Advertisement

Luck Be a Lady: Ciroc Vodka Advertisement LUCK BE A LADY: CIROC VODKA ADVERTISIMENT Stephen Astwood Luck Be a Lady Virtually every rapper today is citing British alcohol maker Diageo’s CIROC Ultra-Premium Vodka in their lyrics. The brand seems to have found an interesting niche, more specifically that of the premium liquor market. CIROC’s â€Å"Luck Be a Lady† advert, synonymous with the song of the same name made famous by Frank Sinatra, calls upon a all-star cast with public celebrities like hip-hop entrepreneur and investor in CIROC Sean ‘P. Diddy’ Combs, and a assortment of male actors and female models. The men are elegantly dressed in suits with Combs (2011) first statement suggesting the strategy of the campaign, â€Å"We have arrived.† He urges them to go out and amass millions of dollars, wanting the practice become a regular habit. Combs (2011) first full statement is, â€Å"Fellas, we have arrived†¦we gone win a couple million, break the bank out here, then we gone do it all over again.† The ads next scene is them disembarking a priv ate jet in Las Vegas, where there are beautiful women to greet them with actual shots of CIROC. (Jernigan, Ostroff Ross, 2005) says, â€Å"In modern alcohol markets, the advertising and promotion of alcohol are central to the product itself. Whereas in earlier eras, alcohol may have been marketed based on the quality, purity, and price of the product, now the identity of the brand is paramount† (p. 314). This campaign strives to tell the story that connects a life of luxury and leisure with the product itself. The commercial successfully fills the objective of the formerly mentioned narrative, and encapsulates the sensation of attainment one can appreciate with having consumed CIROC. However, the representation of this lifestyle associated with a brand can have false consequences when classism and consumption becomes more than the product itself (in this case CIROC), and more about trying to keep up with the exemplified way of life. It is of no surprise that the ad echoes th e culture of which Sean ‘P. Diddy’ Combs is a pioneer; that of hip-hop, which today is full of images purporting classism, consumerism and to put in urban vernacular, swag over substance. The campaign pays homage to Sinatra and his contemporaries the ‘Rat Pack’, with Combs (2011) telling Soul Culture Magazine that, The Rat Pack defined the art of celebrating in style. I cannot imagine a Spirit more suitable for commemorating life with family and friends than CIROC; a brand that has become synonymous with celebratory occasions.† Thorstein Veblen (1979) says that, â€Å"In order to gain and to hold the esteem of men it is not sufficient merely to possess wealth of power. The wealth or power must be put in evidence, for esteem is awarded only on evidence† (p. 24). As Combs (2011) declares, â€Å"We have arrived†, it not only takes into account the physical arrival at a private jet facility, but the arrival to a height of social status. The depiction of this status in the ad is realized through the collection of luxury products exhibited; from the Escalades, private jet, the many of beautiful women, and of course Las Vegas, which is symbolic for infamous gambling, one of many facets that endorse pleasure as a main motivation for using it as a location to film. Merchandise like this form the basis, or give confirmation to what Veblen (1979) notes as, â€Å"putting wealth and power in evidence† (p. 24). It is contrasted with the fact that they are just drinking a brand of vodka; it connects C IROC to these high-end products. Essentially, the ad is making the statement that CIROC is not just one of the many premium liquor brands, it exceeds the others’. Particular focus is given to excess—gambling in the casinos. While the characters mention that they are looking to â€Å"rake a couple million† and â€Å"break the bank†, inferences are that they are looking to spend a great amount of money. If they are talking about millions, expandable wealth is no object to them. Throughout the advertisement we are bombarded with messages that say if you are not a part of the wealthy class, then you are not worthy. Likewise, if you buy CIROC then you will become just as happy, attractive, and successful as the people portrayed in the commercial. It has been corporate practice that marketers feed—off the uncertainties of individuals who adopt a classist attitude, seeking to elevate themselves up the economic and social ladder. Debra Goldman (2002) state s, â€Å"New-luxury consumers account for a lot of this recession resistance. They are paying premium prices not just for material things (which the old mass market supplied very efficiently) but for emotional ones: comfort, adventure, identity, and esthetic pleasure.† The commercial advocate that anything less than CIROC means you are missing out on the true emotional significance of successes and all that entails. Sean ‘P. Diddy’ Combs in an interview with the publication Adweek (2011) was asked, â€Å"What do you think your brand stands for?† Combs (2011) responded by saying: â€Å"I think I stand for aspiration. [That] hard work pays off.  People from all walks of life and all over the world look at  me and know my humble beginnings and know that everything  I’ve done has been through hard work. People respect me as a  marketer and brand builder.† As mentioned beforehand, there are countless references of CIROC in hip-hop culture today, so much so that the brand epitomizes the approach to the music. Such adoration toward alcohol in music, and specifically in hip-hop is not unique to CIROC. For example, MOET and CRISTAL, rightly having been observed as premium brands, have been used in the lyrics of Combs protà ©gà © the late Notorious BIG (1994, 1997) in which he says, â€Å"The back of the club sipping ‘Moet’ is where you’ll find me† and â€Å"Take their spots, take their keys, make my faculty/Live happily ever after in laughter/Hah, never seen ‘Cristal’ pour faster/And to those bastards, knuckleheads squeeze lead.† Miller and Muir (2004) note that, â€Å"As a cultural and commercial force, hip-hop’s impact is formidable: Coke, Pepsi, Gucci, Bacardi, Burberry, Mercedes, Nike and McDonald’s are among the brands that have used hip hop to sell themselves† (p. 178). While hip-hop was shaped from much more serious questions than which bottle to ‘pop’ in the club, it is thanks to endorsements from rappers in various lyrics that certain brands have enjoyed a substantial boost in popularity. The campaign suggests another cultural perception, and that is how the women are represented. Amico (1998) says that, â€Å"Advertisements promoted the image of women as childlike and sexy† (p. 19). From the onset of the commercial, the women appear in a role that is subservient and playful, regarding them as another expression of the luxurious life. The women have one speaking part; following a trend in advertising that rarely do female characters have a voice in a commercial unless it is for something directly marketed to women. Wood (1999) notes, â€Å"To be feminine in the United States is to be attractive, differential, unaggressive, emotional, nurturing, and concerned with people and relationships† (as cited in Turow McAllister, 2009, p. 193). These concepts are depicted in the commercial and emphasize the historic belief about gender roles that women as the protagonist are expected to serve the male. Although the women are dressed in attire that suggests profess ionalism, as with many modern women, when they are portrayed this way, women are seen as having to work their â€Å"second job† when they arrive home. There is less evidence than usual to suggest this advert is working to undercut any progress made for women’s rights. However, the message sent to the viewers here is that the men is the one with authority—the one in control, and the womans role is to serve; and just because the women appear successful and having a good time, it is only on the condition that she still carries out her principal duties as hostess. The campaign, â€Å"Luck Be a Lady† debuted in mid-December 2011 on both US televisions as well as online. Diageo said that the ad will run on various channels that predominantly are dedicated to music and sports. The 30 second version of the ad campaign aired over the holiday season collection of NBA games; however the original format is that of a short film. CIROC (2011) has stated in their campaign marketing that, â€Å"Ciroc has taken the stance that their marketing video needed not backstory, narrative arc or a connection to reality. No one in a decision-making capacity on their marketing team thought to ask whether it mattered that, there’s no reason for these people to be hanging out, that nothing remotely interesting goes on outside of the visual, and that it’s just kind of weird.† The reason for this strategy forms the basis of advertising success. The intertextuality with the â€Å"Rat Pack† gives fundamental basis to what the commercial i s endorsing. Olsen et al. (2003, 1993, 1995, and 2004) notes that: â€Å"Advertisements have become an integrated part of popular  culture which they parody, and by drawing upon socially  situated codes, myths, cultural discourse, and national  ideologies to develop resonant associations for consumer  goods, advertisements both constitute prevailing ideologies  and construct new mythologies and ideologies for commodities  through these dialogical and intertextual relationships.† (as cited in Turow McAllister, 2009, p. 134) The references made to the ‘Rat Pack’ are deliberate because the target market is already familiar with them and what they symbolize as CIROC is used as a form of product placement. It isn’t a blatant use of it, but still generates links that are already drawn by the audience’s knowledge. Just as actors, musicians, artist and the like come to personify their brand, Sean ‘P. Diddy Combs has come to personify CIROC. There are very few places and very few songs nowadays that don’t associate the two. In ‘Luck Be a Lady’ a variety of roles become closely tied to the message of luxury and success. The image of the ‘Rat Pack’ according to Combs was considered because it sought to emphasize what Strasser (2009) says that, â€Å"Through advertising, leisure becomes a goal of modern living, not just an attribute used to sell a product† (as cited in Turow McAllister, 2009, p. 25). Having the resources to live life the way the campaign projects, is a desire of most western consumers. The commercials statement is made more striking knowing the success Combs has attained personally; that this could actually be a day in the life of Sean ‘P. Diddy’ Combs. The â€Å"match-up hypothesis† is described by Till Busler (20 13) as, â€Å"The differential impact that different types of endorsers, often celebrities, have on the endorsed brand† (p. 2). Diageo notes the business has had significant growth since they affiliated Sean â€Å"Diddy† Combs. Marketing and Research Company Symphony IRI says that, â€Å"Sales (of CIROC) jumped 41% to $6.8 million in the year ended Oct. 3 2007.† Initial brand management before Combs tended to focus on the grape according to MediaCom, CIROC’s media agency until January 2011. When Aegis’ Carat (2011) took over responsibilities they said, â€Å"That whole grape story just didn’t work, because nobody really cared. It didn’t carry around enough cachet.† Through the success of advertising campaign; â€Å"Lady Be Luck†, CIROC is now positioned as a brand amongst the most successful in the world with The Spirits Business (2012) reporting that, â€Å"The sale of 1.5m cases in 2011 has helped Ciroc to become the second largest ultra-premium vodka in the US.† Combs statement to Andrew Hampp (2007) in Ad Age, summed up his relevance to the brand and the brands success in the market. He said, â€Å"I’ve branded myself as the king of celebration, and that’s what this alliance is all about.† References Amico, E.B. (Ed.) (1998). Reader’s Guide to Women’s Studies. Chicago, IL: Fitzroy Dearborn. Combs, S. (2001). Luck Be a Lady (Starring Diddy, Eva Pigford More). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iVMjRJJrQqY. Frith, K., Ping, S., Cheng, H. (2009). The Construction of Beauty: A Cultural Analysis of  Women’s Magazine Advertising. In J. Turow M.P. McAllister (Eds.), The Advertising  and Consumer Culture Reader (p. 193). New York, NY: Routledge. Goldman, D. (2002). ADWEEK: Consumer Republic. Retrieved from  http://www.adweek.com/news/consumer-republic-59788. Goldman, H. (2011). The Reel Front: Deconstructing Diddy’s Latest Ciroc Branded Film,  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Ciroc Luck Be a Lady†. Retrieved from http://therealfront.tumblr.com/post/15053011045. Hampp, A. (2007) AdvertisingAge: Hes Gone by Puffy, Diddy and Now Brand Manager.  Retrived from http://adage.com/article/news/puffy-diddy-brand-manager/121489/. Jernigan, D., Ostroff., Ross, C. (2005). Alcohol Advertising and Youth: A Measured  Approach. Journal of Public Health Policy, 26, 312-325. doi:10.1057/palgrave.jphp.3200038 . Kelly, A., Lawlor K., O’Donohoe, S. (2009). Encoding Advertisements: The Creative Perspective. In J. Turow M.P. McAllister (Eds.), The Advertising and Consumer Culture Reader (p. 134). New York, NY: Routledge. Levine, D.M. (2011). ADWEEK: Fast Chat: Sean ‘Diddy’ Combs The rap mogul on the Rat Pack, his brand and building a better mousetrap. Retrieved from http://www.adweek.com/news/advertising-branding/fast-chat-sean-diddy-combs-137229. Miller, J. Muir. (2004). The Business of Brands. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Stresser, S. (2009). The Alien Past: Consumer Culture in Historical Perspective. In J. Turow M.P. McAllister (Eds.), The Advertising and Consumer Culture Reader (p. 25). New York, NY: Routledge. The Spirits Business: Vodka-Brand Champions 2012. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.thespiritsbusiness.com/2012/07/vodka-brand-champions-2012/. Till, B.D., Busler, M. (2002). The Match-Up Hypothesis: Physical Attractiveness, Expertise, and the role of Fit on Brand Attitude, Purchase Intent and Brand Beliefs. Journal of Advertising, 29 (3), 1-13. doi:10.1080/00913367.2000.10673613. Toney. (2011). Soul Culture: Diddy’s Luck Be a Lady Commercial. Retrieved from http://www.soulculture.co.uk/culture-2/film-tv/diddys-luck-be-a-lady-ciroc-commercial-extended-version-video/. Veblen, T. (1979). The Theory of the Leisure Class. New York, NY: Penguin Books. Wallace, C. (1994). Big Poppa. On Ready to Die [CD]. New York, New York: Universal Music Group. Wallace, C. (1997). You’re Nobody Till Somebody Kills You. On Life After Death [CD]. New York, New York: Universal Music Group. Types of business travel: An overview Types of business travel: An overview Types of business travel Travelling on business can take many forms. Individuals may be travelling to meetings, to exhibitions to make sales calls to customers. There are also a lot of occasions when high amount of groups of people travel individually, or together, to take part in a conference or corporate. Companies that organise business travel are operating in a different market to those who organise conferences and events and are often different companies. However, overlap does occur, for example Kuoni is a well known tour operator, yet has an arm of its company which specialises in event management. Incentive Travel The incentive travel is offered by the employer(company) to the employee which is like a entertainment gift for them as they are travelling for free. This will make the employee very happy as they can rest at the same time as well as having fun which overall it effects the work rate of the employee when they are back as it will make them much more motivated to work harder in the future as they may gain another reward. What effect incentive travel gives to the employee Facilitating communication and networking opportunities, especially in senior management cheering the companys socially Having a better company loyalty Creating eagerness for upcoming company period Strengthening the relationship between the employee and the company Advantages for employees Every employee will feel very special and be satisfied in their job as the company has given them an fantastic opportunity to go for an great holiday which they have gain the award. It automatically changes the employees feelings in work by making them feel successful and thinking they are the best in that work place because they were rewarded an incentive travel. That may also mean they had one of the best performance in the sales team for that business because they were rewarded as not many people experience this trip because its not often many people being offered an incentive travel by their company. Exhibitions and trade fairs There are exhibitions and trade fairs for just about every type of product. Business people attend trade fairs to keep up-to-date on the latest development in their industry which shows they are competing with each other as the find suppliers for products and services and to network with colleagues. There are two aspects of the organisation of fairs and exhibitions. Firstly, there are companies who organise the exhibitions and sell stands to exhibitors. An example is Reed Exhibitions. They have a division, Red Travel Exhibitions, who focus on travel events. Lastly, there are many of business to be gained in organising travel to exhibitions and accommodation for attendees. Conferences and meetings The meetings industry Association (MIA) is the largest association for meetings industry for the UK and Ireland, providing support for venues and suppliers in the meetings environment. A company who wants to organise a large meeting, or conference, could approach the MIA to find out about companies who can make the arrangements for them. Corporate events Corporate events and hospitality is a specialist industry within travel and tourism that focuses on providing events, hospitality and entertainment to business clients. It can be know as a an incentive to an consumer because they have place a business with a different employer or to persuade businesses that may have not yet customers to an arrangement with the business. It is also seen as a good way for a company to network and make new business contacts. Corporate events take many forms – from lavish events at Wimbledon or the Henley Regatta to the owner of a business inviting his or her bank manager for a meal in a local restaurant. Many corporate hospitality functions are centred on sports events, such as golf championships, cricket, tennis, rugby and football matches. There are many specialist companies that handle all the arrangements for corporate events, from sending our invitations and ‘meet and greet’ services to providing catering and entertainment. Business Agencies This section is the role of business travel agents and the different types of agents operating in the industry. Role Business travel is concerned with providing products and services for business people travelling to meetings, attending conferences and conventions, and taking part in trade fairs and exhibitions. It also includes incentive travel, where holidays, short breaks and other travel services are offered to members of staff as an incentive to reach work targets. big business travel agencies are regularly performing on behalf of two parties when they take on their job. They are providing help needed by their customer, referred to as the consumer, on whose behalf they are making the travel schedules. They are also an agent for the corporation that is supplying the product. These companies are recognized as ‘principals’ and comprise airlines, hotels and car hire companies. Business travel is an increasingly important industry, since it is often ‘high value tourism’, earning hoteliers, caterers, transport providers, travel agents and a host of other companies’ signià ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã‚ cant income. Business travel is considered a high value industry because: Clients often have to travel at short notice, meaning that they are not able to take advantage of discounted advance purchase rates; Business people often use high quality accommodation; Business travel invariably includes an element of entertaining business clients Travel is often in upgraded services, e.g. business class or à ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã‚ rst class. Business travel agencies can be divided into à ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã‚ ve distinct types: 1. Independent agencies 2. National agencies 3. Global agencies 4. Implant 5. E-agent. Each type has its own particular characteristics and products. Independent agencies Across the UK, there are many independent travel agents that offer business travel arrangements. They are not part of a national chain and are often managed by the owner and a small team of staff. They may be companies that deal exclusively with business travellers, but are more likely to deal with both leisure and business clients. Unlike national agents (see below), independent travel agents are free to offer their business clients travel services from a wide range of suppliers. Independent business travel agents trade on their ability to offer their clients a very personal service, relying on word-of-mouth recommendation from satisfied customers for extra business. As well as being members of ABTA – The Travel Association, many independent business agents join consortia such as Advantage Travel or World choice in order to benefit from supplier discounts, make useful business contacts and to have their voices heard. National Agencies These are UK-based companies that are part of a national chain of travel agencies, such as Thomas Cook, Co-op Travelcare and Thomson. These agencies deal primarily with holidays and other leisure travel products, but can meet the needs of business travellers as well. Agencies that are located in parts of the country with high concentrations of companies and a large business community often generate a sizeable proportion of their turnover from business clients. Organisations of all sizes and in all sectors of the economy often need their staff to travel on business. Sole traders, members of partnerships, company directors, public sector staff, junior and senior managers, all travel from time to time on business. This could be in their local area, elsewhere in the UK, to countries in continental Europe or further afield. Implants Implants are agents operating within a business premises, so that they are on hand to look after travel requirements as needed. The agent may often work alone and is employed by a business travel agency, not by the company in whose premises they are based. E-agents As in leisure travel, there is an expanding demand for online business travel services. Some of them may be familiar with the website offering travel services, Expedia. Expedia claims that is corporate travel business, launched in 2002, is the fifth largest by turnover worldwide. Products and services Business travel agents may be dealing with small companies sending individuals on business trips to corporate clients who want all of their business travel managed. Basic services will always include: Accommodation bookings Flight bookings – either scheduled or low-cost, business, first or even economy Transfer Cars hire or rail tickets Ancillary sales, such as car parking or insurance. The agency will book accommodation for a customer and that is to find where they will stay, arrange travel such as flight bookings on specific dates, transfers to the hotel etc. Ancillary services such as insurance and parking. Management of a customer’s travel expenditures This means analysing data so that a corporation knows exactly what is being spent on business travel and where. The travel management company manage the data and make it available to the customer 24-hours a day in a spreadsheet or database. Negotiation with suppliers The agent negotiates terms on the customer’s behalf with airlines, care hire companies and hotels for accommodation which this is for the agency to find the best deals for their consumers. Products and services provided by suppliers All hotels and airlines want to tap in to the lucrative business travel market and constantly bring out new products and services to entice business travellers. Hotels offer Wi-Fi and business centres as a matter. Business customers may choose executive rooms. Even cheaper hotels, such as the premier Inn chain, offer wireless internet and meeting rooms which is what the business customers expects to have. Is Blood Thicker Than Water? Is Blood Thicker Than Water? Literature Review Draft Is Blood is Thicker than Water? Blood is thicker than water, this idiom expresses the idea that family relationships are stronger and more durable than friendship ties. This idea is reinforced through customs, traditions, and laws that give familial relationships prerogative over non-familial ties and determine who may be defined as family (Muraco, 2006). In fact this theme is so pervasive in our society that, at times, it goes unrecognized for example; should a childs parents pass away all eyes look to the next of kin or closest living relative. It is the same if there was a collection of debts that need to be paid. In the case of hospitalization in an intensive care unit, often the rule is the admittance of immediate family only. In fact, according to the Uniform Probate Code of the United States section 2-103 in the event that one dies without a will, both children and the whole of their estate go to their family (source). Many find it intriguing that it is the conventional assumption within our society that in a time of crisis, it is the presence of those we are most concerned about in our lives our family- that is of most importance. The idea that familial relationships mean more than all other types of relationships, dates back almost 600 years to 1412 (source). The fact that this idea is still prevalent today, so many centuries later, leads the author to believe that there must be something fundamentally, or qualitatively different about the relationships we have with family (mother, father, sibling), and those we have with friends. If so, what is it? The aim of this paper examines these issues and as a result suggests further research that needs to be done. networks of family support tend to be denser than friendship networks (Wellman Wortley, 1989), creating a context in which responsibilities toward family members develop (Finch Mason, 1993); responsibility is further strengthened by norms within our (Himes Reidy, 2000; Stein et al., 1998). On one hand, family relationships are continued even if there is a degree of animosity and conflict (Allan, 1996). Friendship, on the other hand, can be seen as an independent relationship that tends to be based strongly on a sense of reciprocity (Buunk Prins, 1998). We therefore expect sibling relationships to be less strongly influenced than friendships by these mechanisms. With marriage being less stable, and with the number of children falling, peer relationships potentially become increasingly important. Friendship offers a way of inventing and re-inventing the self in an authentic way throughout ones life. As such it is particularly important to women whose idea of themselves is typically rooted in social relationships. (OConnor 1999: 118) By virtue of growing up in the same family, siblings know each other intimately and develop a body of shared knowledge that may facilitate a common basis for social understanding. In 2005 Schaf, Schulman and Spitz found that siblings provide emotional support for each other, resulting in reduced anxiety that can come with being an outcast with peers. The sibling relationship ahs been shown to be increasingly valuable being as it has been found associated with lower loneliness and depression and with higher self-esteem and overall life satisfaction. Also, sibling support has been found to compensate when there is an absence of not only parental support but friendship support aswell (Anderson, 2005).. In a study about social understanding and interpersonal relationships Clarke and Dunn found that the differences in the relationship between siblings and friends are based first on the fact that there is a choice involved. Children choose their friends however they do not choose their siblings and are typically faced with living with them. They also found that sibling relationships can have attributes like hostility and ambivalence which are rarely found in friendships (2005). Among the differences between these relationships are the expectations involved. In familial relationships the emphasis is not on equality, balance, and reciprocity as is the case in friendships (Mills, Clark, Ford, Johnson, 2004). However the sibling relationship, not unlike the friend relationship requires maintenance by regular positive interaction, its does not remain ready at all times to be activated whenever the need arises (Voorspstal, 2007). The general everyday understanding of what family entails is different from everyday understanding of what friendship entails. This does not mean that family and friend relationships have no commonality, nor does it mean that people never regard friends as family or family as friends. It does, however, suggest that different forms of unity and commitment usually differentiate the two sets of relationships; specifically, the demands that family and friends generally view as legitimate to expect of each other are usually patterned differe ntly, including the consequent effect on the emotional, practical, and material resources that they are prepared to give (Ueno Adams, 2006). In 2005 a study on the sibling relationship in emerging adulthood was conducted which included interviews as part of the method. One participant gave voice to what is a common cultural belief, he wrote, I dont like my siblingsthey dont like me. If we had a choice wed never see each other again. But a family is a group of people youre stuck with for life whether you like it or not.(Leh Ruppe, 2005). Other participants reported relying on their siblings for immediate help and for care in cases of sickness. Additionally, from the qualitative responses obtained, an overwhelming number of responses contained positive comments about sibling relationships. The shift from having a non-family closest friend to having a family member as closest friend is more likely to occur amongst women, older people, lower class and, interestingly, both by getting married or by being widow(ed). That these changes in marital status lead to a shift towards a family member as closest friend is an important finding. It is well established in the literature that those who are newly separated or divorced are more likely to look to non-family members as their closest friend. This is often to avoid the feeling of being judged by family specifically parents or siblings who may have developed a good relationship with their former spouse. In the case of the death of the partner, family members are more likely to provide sympathetic support and so it is less likely that the grieving person would be made to feel judged. In the longer term, however, those who remain widowed are likely to move on from having a relative as their closest friend to having someone outside the family as their closest friend. Importantly, at various phases within the lifespan, the particular structural circumstances of peoples lives may result in both a greater reliance on friends and a reduced involvement with family (Pahl Pevalin, 2005). For example, for some young adults who are establishing their independence from their family but not (yet) started their own, that is, involved in a committed partnerships or a parental phase of life, friends may be the main component of their emotional and practical support networks (Heath Cleaver, 2003). At this time, they may have relatively little involvement with their family relationships. Without necessarily rejecting these ties, their choice is to place more emphasis on friendships with others who may be in a similar situation like unto themselves (Allen, 2008).

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