Friday, May 22, 2020

Is Physician-Assisted Suicide Morally Right - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1410 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/05/31 Category Law Essay Level High school Tags: Assisted Suicide Essay Did you like this example? When you think about a topic with many opinions and views, Physician-Assisted Suicide comes to mind. Physician-assisted suicide is a controversial topic in ethics. Many people are arguing if it ethical unethical. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Is Physician-Assisted Suicide Morally Right?" essay for you Create order The purpose of arguing is thus, if an animal can be killed, why not human. Every being is important, no matter the ill condition. However, It is far better the government to channel the resource to something positive rather than looking for a way to terminate life. If people are arguing whether the lives of these patients is important, the patients should also be consulted as well. Physician-assisted suicide will persuade the terminally ill patients to die faster because is less expensive and because they may lack self-confidence. People that want physician-assisted suicide legalized, probably they never consider the consequences associated with the procedure. If assisted suicide was legal fifty years ago, we wouldnt have some of the advancements in medicine that alleviate pain, diabetes, breathlessness, and other terminal illness today. As a result of improved medical advancement, today Some diseases that were terminal a few years ago are now treated. If we consider assisted suicide as the only solution, we might interrupt or even stop the discovery of effective treatments for those diseases that are now terminal. There would be a disregard for hope. There is no physician that has not come across a patient that was healed by divine intervention. The level of persuasion the patient would feel would be extensive. Families have many intent ways of persuading the patient to demand assisted suicide and alleviate them of the financial and social involvement even if their families are happy to take care of them. For many, this is just another way to terminate the guilt they feel, even if they dont wish to die. The money which they incur from patients in obtaining medical and the hospital bills would stop. Furthermore, physician-assisted suicide is not only illegal but also it is immoral and inhuman for physicians to implement. Any physician that does this immoral act has violated the ethics of their profession. A physician supposed to be an advocator and helper that helps save the lives of patients and not help end the patients lives. Also, such physician that does this, has violated Hippocratic Oath, which is the oath sworn by the doctors prior to receiving his license. The Oat states that , I will not give poison to anyone, though asked to do so, nor will I suggest such a plan?. This means that no doctor should request or administer any lethal injection or medication to the patients. But unfortunately, today so many physicians do not go by the oath they took. According to statistics, 1 out of 5 doctors and nurses have supported the patient to terminate their life in America. There is no meaning in taking an oat if no one will go by the oat. The organization responsible for the oat t aking should also place several penalties to defaulters of the oat of Hippocrates or probably the license should be revoked or suspended. Physician-assisted suicide is unethical and not a natural form of death. The severity of an illness or depression sometimes arises as a result of the thoughts and feelings of the suicide. One thing we should know is that pains are natural. Despite it is natural, there are ways to take away pains that comes with death. There are many medications that can help alleviate pains and help sustain the lives of these patients who are terminally ill. For example, opioid (morphine), has been proven to provide effective pain control to most patients with severe pains. The Patient Controlled Analgesia (PCA) is a major technological advance in pain control. With PCA, there is a constant supply of medications which allows a patient to administer doses when there is an emergency. Also, there is one that can administer to a patient to make him sleep all through the night. With proper healthcare education on the advancement of these pain control, physician-assisted suicide would not be necessary. Th e role of adequate pain control should remain an important duty in providing end-of-life palliative care to terminally ill patients. There should be a collaborative relationship between pain medicine service and palliative care services. With this, there has been found be commonness of pain in cancer survivors of 33 percent, in cancer patients undergoing active treatment of 59 percent, and across all stages of cancer of 53 percent. (Meier and Brawley 2011, 2750). The truth about physician-assisted suicide is that it is a form of murder and unethical. It should be against the law and the heart. This got to do with medicine and morality. If the doctors are licensed to kill or become killers, then the profession will never be trusted, and people with a good moral background would be discouraged from entering the profession. If also, the doctors were given equal right to cure and kill, then the profession would be regarded as an immoral profession. This type of murder underestimates human value. The physicians involved in the act are now regarded as gods who can determine life or death for mankind. Their jobs are to cure and save the lives of their patients, and not god. They should understand that what the patients under them need is care, respect, and absolute love of people around them. Furthermore, those in support of physician-assisted suicide may think that they are taking the right decision in ending their patients life because they are terminally ill. They may think they are ending their suffering and not their gifts and dreams There is an argument by people in favor of this procedure. They argue that if the patient and the family agree, then there is no harm in caring out the patients wish. Though the terminally ill patient might not capable of making a rational decision, the truth still remains that no one even the family member has can assume a choice for an incompetent person without a consent from the patient. Why on earth would one think of ending another persons life? Life and death should not be placed in the hands of the another. The act of dying is determined by nature. Therefore, people should allow nature to take its place. If in any case, a patient is making a decision, he needs to consider the mental and physical aspect of death. If physician-assi sted suicide is considered ethical, it will expose our nation to a frequent untimely death. Some people regard physician-assisted suicide as a compassionate mean of ending pains in terminally ill patients. No matter how they see it, it is murder and is never morally justified. It is considered as killing with an intention. People are trying to make a sound as being medically compassionate and acceptable. Human life is never something to determine whether to continue or not. It can never be measured by the condition. People think and speak as though human life is like a building you can decide whether to demolish it or not. Again, legalizing it can lead to other people deciding whether someone to live or not. For example, if an aged woman has a stroke or tumor and cannot talk or stand, their family member could as well consider physician-assisted suicide because they dont want to face the stressor, they want to give her mercy death. Incredible! Physicians should sort out new ways to cure their patients instead of killing. In conclusion, physician-assisted suicide is unethical and immoral. It should never be allowed or legalized. It is potentially giving lethal medication to the body and may be done by a doctor. The same doctor that is licensed to cure the body of illness is also involved in murder and killing. It is time for doctors to identify their moral and go by the ethics of their profession. They should consider human life and health as their topmost priority. With this, the world will realize that life is so precious and worth more important than mere emphasis. Work Cited: Doctor-assisted suicide should not be legalized (, December 2018) accessed 13 December 2018 Palliative care and the quality of life. Meier DE, Brawley OWJ Clin Oncol. 2011 Jul 10; 29(20):2750-2. Jun 13, 2011 2011 Jul 10; 29(20): 2750â€Å"2752. Otis W. Brawley 2011 by important new American Society of Clinical Oncology and most patients receive hospice care in their own Administrative support: Diane E. Meier 17. van den Beuken-van Everdeen MH, de Rinke JM, Kessels AG, et al.

Friday, May 8, 2020

Africa Shaped By Technology And Atmosphere Before The 1800s

Africa Shaped by Technology and Atmosphere Before the 1800s Hieroglyphs can be considered one of the oldest forms of literature; Egyptians developed this technology at around 4,000 BC. Reasons for creating hieroglyphs are art, and communication (Mattessich). Parallel to that, farming was another type of technology that was being developed along the north of Africa and the river Nile, by the upcoming kingdom of Africa. Nubia (modern day Sudan) also gave rise to another kind of technology in term of agriculture, the cattle herding, their location made it easy to feed animals because it was tropical and had lots of vegetation. Hunter gathers were living since the beginnings of times, so this is not a new developed technology but it is significant to say that the rest of Africa was occupied by them (Britton). By 1,500 BC the Egyptian empire was the leading power over Mesopotamia, Syrian and Canaan. Around this time somewhere in north Africa, sub-Saharan or the highlands of Ethiopia the domestication of sorghum and millet occurred, giving a boost in the agricultural aspect and helping societies being more settle (Zohary and Hopf), millet is thought to be brought from east Asia through land, since it was it has been cultivated there since 8,000 BC years (Lu, Zhang and Liu). This is a crucial event because sorghum and millet are harder to farm that wheat and barley. Since Africa never had an established continental â€Å"Bronze era† it is generally said that they jumped from Stone AgeShow MoreRelatedOne Significant Change That Has Occurred in the World Between 1900 and 2005. Explain the Impact This Change Has Made on Our Lives and Why It Is an Important Change.163893 Words   |  656 Pagesvery coherent unit. The beginnings and ends of what we choose to call centuries are almost invariably years of little significance. But there is little agreement over when the twentieth century c.e. arrived, and there were several points both before the year 2000 (the collapse of the Soviet Union, the reunification of Germany, the surge of globalization from the mid-1990s) and afterward (9/11, or the global recession of 2008) when one could quite plausibly argue that a new era had begun. ARead MoreApush American Pageant Chapter 1 -24887 Words   |  20 Pagesscattered. Also many cultures, including Iroquois = Matrilinear culture. 4. Events that led up to discovery - Marco polos rich accounts of China, more teasers of Spices and asian goods, better technology (caravel). 5. Africa - Africa was known to the Europeans for ages, but they did not have the proper technology to get there, the portugese set up trade posts for gold and slave. They originally used these slaves to work on sugar plantations on the African Coastal Islands. 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Both co-supervisors provided me excellent atmosphere and friendly academic guidance that saw me through in my research and academic work from 1987-1991. Besides, many other academics contributed to the success of my PhD programme. They include Dr. Karen Dvorak, Professor Y. L. Fabiyi, 5 ProfessorRead MoreEssay on Wireless Electricity14464 Words   |  58 PagesEconomic Questions and Considerations 16 IV. Wireless Technology with Today’s Culture 20 V. Ethical Implications of Wireless Power 26 VI. Environmental Impact 30 VII. Bibliography 33 ABSTRACT: Wireless electricity is not a new idea, but it has recently become revitalized. This paper looks at the different facets of this invigorated technology. First, it talks about what wireless electricity is and the differentRead MoreTransportation in Food Industry7769 Words   |  32 Pagesstarted to come in use, it increased the capacity substansially. The invention of the wheel gave people carts and roads were built to make it faster and better for them. Until the 19th century, sea transport dominated food transport technology. However, during the 1800s the steamship and railway revolutionized continental transport and food trade (eHow. Com). These better transport methods made trade between people grow, and foods were shipped long distances. Better roads, bigger and better ships andRead MoreCase Study for Management Accounting36912 Words   |  148 Pagesfirm’s engineers concentrated on understanding the customer’s requirements. The firm’s products were used in a wide variety of applications and most were custom designed. Many of these applications presented state-of-the-art challenges in sealing technology. Without careful attention to the underlying requirements, the firm could easily fail to design an effective seal. Fast prototyping consisted of rapidly creating a working example of the new product. Fast prototyping had two advantages. First, theRead MoreCase Study for Management Accounting36918 Words   |  148 Pagesfirm’s engineers concentrated on understanding the customer’s requirements. The firm’s products were used in a wide variety of applications and most were custom designed. Many of these applications presented state-of-the-art challenges in sealing technology. Without careful attention to the underlying requirements, the firm could easily fail to design an effective seal. Fast prototyping consisted of rapidly creating a working example of the new product. Fast prototyping had two advantag es. First, theRead MoreOpportunities23827 Words   |  96 PagesConsumers’ attachment to the Starbucks brand was not based on mass advertising or promotion. It was based, Schultz believed, on their experience in company stores: on their reactions to the coffee, the people who made and served it, and the stores’ atmosphere and sense of community. This experience, he said, â€Å"earned customers’ trust by speaking to their hearts as well as their heads.†9 As they debated international expansion in 1995 and 1996, he and other managers were fairly confident that the appealRead MoreA Study on Customer Preference in Retail Store- Adani Store28361 Words   |  114 Pagessuperpower in the arena of information technology. The retail industry offers to bloom to the same level if conductive environment and support is provided it. India’s one billion populations make the country the second largest in the world in terms of population which is the very basis for successful organized retailing. We should take heart from the fact that most of the world’s successful retail stories in the developed as well as developing countries have shaped up in small towns and villages.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Why Youth Leave the Church Free Essays

Introduction â€Å"With such an army of workers as our youth, rightly trained, might furnish, how soon the message of a crucified, risen, and soon-coming Savior might be carried to the whole world! † (Education, p. 271). Wow, what a statement. We will write a custom essay sample on Why Youth Leave the Church or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is probably the most well known statement by Sister Ellen White concerning the youth. These words are so powerful and motivating, that they inspire the imagination to look forward to it’s fulfillment, to the day when this army of dedicated Christian young people will be spread out around the world to bring the message of Jesus’ soon return to everyone. I must confess that simply the thought of this sends shivers down my spine. I am, however, forced to question whether this dream will ever become a reality. The church, it seems, is facing a dilemma, in that we are losing the youth. Many of our young people are leaving the church, and in seeking to answer the question of why this is happening, I would like to share with you the resource that I believe to most accurately describe the reason for the youth leaving the church, as well as what to do to stem the flow of this widespread desertion. Recommended Resource(s) The main resource that I believe to be the best and that I would like to recommend, is the book, Why our Teenagers Leave the Church, written by author Roger L. Dudley. I will also be referring to two other resources that I used, both of which is based on the above mentioned book. The first and most important is an article with the same title, and by the same author. It is basically a condensed version of the book, and it covers the basics of the research done, as well as the results and what can be done to prevent the youth from leaving the church. The second is a sermon by Pastor Dwight K. Nelson, titled, Primer for the next generation: XNY 101. In the sermon Pastor Nelson briefly explains how the study was done, the results attained, and the remedy to the problem. I will now proceed to discuss the two secondary resources (Article: Why our teenagers leave the church; Sermon: Primer for the next generation: XNY 101), based on the premise of the primary resource (Book: Why our teenagers leave the church). Primary Resource Roger Dudley’s book is the culmination of an expansive 10 year longitudinal study, where the author traced the lives of about 1500 teenagers as they grew up and, often, grew disillusioned. According to his book, Dudley asserts that 40 to 50 percent of Adventist youth leave the church before their mid twenties. Secondary Resources Why our Teenagers leave the Church (Article) As was mentioned previously, the article is a very condensed version of the book, and it goes straight to the point. The purpose of the study was to attempt to discover the extent of the church’s loss of it’s young adults. According to the article, 40 to 50 percent of baptized Seventh Day Adventist teenagers either dropped their membership, or became inactive in the church, in their mid twenties. According to Dudley, there are five influences that determines the continuation or discontinuation of young people in the church, and they are as follows: Home Influences Parochial vs. Public Education Congregational Involvemnet Lifestyle Standards Devotional Practices I am in favor of, and recommend this resource, because it is straight forward and to the point. It provides the needed facts right from the start, allowing the reader to look at the all the determinants and then make a plan on how to proceed to negate or minimize the loss of young people. Primer for the next generation: XNY 101 (Sermon: Audio) Pastor Dwight K. Nelson starts of by explaining the details of the study that was done. He quotes the following from the book: â€Å"Many teenagers and young adults are leaving the church because they perceive it to be behavior centered when they are looking for relationships. † (Why Our Teenagers Leave the Church, P58) â€Å"We have seen that though our youth have heard the words of the gospel of righteousness by grace through faith, . . . [our] emphasis on behavioral standards has led the majority to believe that they must somehow merit salvation. . . Through precept and example, we must do everything possible to clarify grace and to break the hold of legalism. We must communicate a gospel of hope. Without this effort we will never retain our youth. They will not continue to struggle in a contest that they cannot possibly win. † (58, 59 emphasis supplied) I would also gladly recommend this resource, because Paste r Nelson identifies the problem from the data, and he then goes on to provide a remedy to the problem. Conclusion â€Å"We cannot always build the future for our youth, but we can build our youth for the future. † Franklin D. Roosevelt When looking at the data covered in these resources, it is clear that the future is uncertain. It is also clear that the youth are the leaders of tomorrows church, and in order for them to lead, they need to be there. We need to realize that we cannot necessarily set everything in place for our youth, but, what we can however do, is to prepare our youth for the future, for the decision’s that they will have to make. We can prepare them for this uncertain future by laying a good foundation in our educational institutions, at church, and most importantly at home. The greatest determinant, by far, is the family. If the family is built on the rock, nothing can shake it. â€Å"With such an army of workers as our youth, rightly trained, might furnish, how soon the message of a crucified, risen, and soon-coming Savior might be carried to the whole world! † (Education, p. 271). — Reference List Ellen G. White, Education ( Washington, D. C. : Review and Herald, 1903). Roger L. Dudley, Why Our Teenagers Leave the Church: Personal Stories from a 10-Year Study (Hagerstown, Md. : Review and Herald, 2000) Roger L. Dudley, Why Our Teenagers Leave the Church (Spectrum, Volume 28, Issue 4, Autumn 2000) How to cite Why Youth Leave the Church, Papers

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

Managing Cultural Diversity A Case Analysis of Hilton Hotels Corporation

Introduction The issue of cultural diversity is increasingly attracting broad attention from academics and industry, not only in the United States but also globally.Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Managing Cultural Diversity: A Case Analysis of Hilton Hotels Corporation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Current globalization trends coupled with international labor migration has meant that societies, nations and organizations are becoming increasingly cross cultural (Richardson 2005), thus the need for stakeholders to adopt and harness strategic initiatives to leverage diversity as well as enhance performance and effectiveness (Ying-Chang et al 2011). The hospitality industry, in particular, is at the core of recent developments in globalization and labor migration as can be witnessed by the increasing mobility of the workforce and attempts within the industry to expand business operations to international fronti ers (Pinilla 2002). Hence, the importance of developing strategies to manage cultural diversity becomes a central guiding pillar for the industry. Aim Structure Assuming a case study approach, the present paper aims to address how Hilton Hotels Corp employs strategic initiatives in recruitment and training of multi-cultural workforce with the view to gain competitive efficiencies and enhance organizational effectiveness through managing cultural diversity. The paper begins by briefly explaining the various facets of cultural diversity and how they apply to the hospitality industry, followed by a brief overview of why organizations need to manage cultural diversity and if such management can translate to competitive advantage. The main focus of the paper, however, will be to critically analyze how the Hilton Hotels Corp uses the recruitment process and training initiatives as strategies to manage cultural diversity and hence gain competitive advantage. The paper will conclude by pro viding some recommendations that can be used by industry players to enhance competitiveness through leveraging diversity. Cultural Diversity At the most basic level, cultural diversity â€Å"†¦reflects the characteristics that make one individual culturally different from another†¦The difference encompass patterns of lifestyle, values, beliefs, ideals and practices, race, ethnicity, national origin, language and religion† (Richardson 2005, p. 24).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In organizational context, cultural diversity encompasses all groups of people at all echelons of the organization, and requires that employees are empowered with the capacity to pursue their career aspirations without being unnecessarily inhibited by the aforementioned variables, which are largely considered as irrelevant to individual performance (Kautish 2012). Cultural Diversity at Hilton Hotels Corp Before going to the basics of how Hilton manages cultural diversity, it is imperative to note that international workers are a mounting category of employees in the hospitality industry, primarily due to globalization, market expansion, high employee turnover and skills shortages (Devine et al 2007). Owing to these factors, culturally diverse workers form an invaluable new source of labor for the hospitality industry, as long as they are adequately integrated into the industry and properly managed. This prerogative, in my view, elucidates the importance of cultural diversity management within the hospitality industry. With more than 540 hotels and resorts in over 78 countries across six contnents (Hilton Hotels Resorts 2012), the Hilton Hotels Corp is undoubtedly one of the leading hospitality organizations in the world. The hospitality chain has its roots in the United States, but it has effectively used the concept of franchising to expand to all corners of the world, including popular locations such as New York, London, Paris, Beijing, Toronto and Sao Paulo, among others (Ying-Chang et al, 2011). The noted expansion implies that Hilton operates in culturally diverse geographical contexts and employs increasingly culturally diverse workforce to manage its operations and serve customers worldwide. The analysis section of this paper will focus attention on how this hotel chain uses manages cultural diversity through recruitment processes and training initiatives to enhance competitive efficiencies. The Need to Manage Cultural Diversity Pinilla (2002) argues that â€Å"†¦the new labor and economic contexts have led the hospitality industry to face an increasingly culturally diverse workforce† (p. 26). Such cultural variations, if not properly managed, can destroy the harmonious functioning of global hospitality organizations and also render labor and employment practices in these firms sub-optimal (Stevens Ogunji 2011).Adver tising We will write a custom report sample on Managing Cultural Diversity: A Case Analysis of Hilton Hotels Corporation specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More More importantly, research has found that a diverse workforce, if properly managed, provides organization with an expanded pool of talent and experience which not only drives innovation and change but ultimately leads to competitive advantages (Adu-Febiri 2006; Cox Blake 1991). Consequently, there exists compelling evidence that managing cultural diversity in contemporary firms is one of the most important components of organizational success. Advantages Disadvantages of Managing Cultural Diversity Among the advantages, a stream of emerging literature demonstrates that hospitality organizations that have adopted cultural diversity management as part of the business strategy are more successful and are able to attain competitive advantage over others, particularly in terms of e mployee empowerment, creation of a corporate culture that is respectful and inclusive, and facilitating employees to employ their unique knowledge to expand the organization’s knowledge base (Cox Blake 1991; Richardson 2005). Conversely, according to these authors, organizational effectiveness is put in jeopardy if managers are incapable of managing cultural diversity, more so in limiting the organizations’ capacity to embrace the innovation that is extremely fundamental for developing and maintaining sustainable competitive efficiencies. Extending on these studies, Stevens and Ogunji (2011) argue that managing cultural diversity assists hospitality organizations to penetrate broader competitive arena and compete in diverse markets, not mentioning that it makes it possible for these organizations to promote flexibility and rapid response to organizational change. Additionally, effective management of cultural diversity prevents workplace discrimination and prejudice, enabling employees to make full use of their skills and capabilities for optimal output (Roper Brookes 1997). Lastly, effective management of cultural diversity enhances the organization’s ability to respond to cultural preferences in local markets, improves decision making processes through wider choice of perspectives and more thorough analysis, and enhances organizational flexibility to adequately respond to multiple demands and shifting business environments (Richardson 2005; Kautish 2012).Advertising Looking for report on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Among the disadvantages, cultural diversity is known to cause communication difficulties (Shen et al 2009), increases ambiguity, complexity and confusion (Adu-Febiri, 2006), limits management’s choice in decision making, affects technology transfer and management ideology and value system, and triggers over generalization of organizational policies, strategies, practices and procedures (Kautish 2012). Analysis Discussion This section analyze and discuss how Hilton Hotels Corp, based in the United States but running hospitality subsidiaries across six continents, employs strategic initiatives in recruitment and training to manage its workforce with the view to gain competitive efficiencies and enhance organizational effectiveness. Recruitment The main objective â€Å"†¦of effective recruiting is to attract strong candidates who are prepared both to meet the agency’s strategic goals and priorities and to work in the agency’s environment† (Building and Maintaining 2000, para. 16). Hilton Hotels Corp (thereafter referred to as Hilton) has realized that broadening its employee base and enlisting a diverse workforce not only expands the organization’s pool of talent, innovativeness, experience, and insight, but also provides it with the requisite inputs to excel in the international business environment (Wise, 2011). Consequently, the organization has developed recruitment policies and processes that guarantee representation of minority groups and individuals with unique talents across diverse cultures. In its franchising policy, Hilton has embedded a recruitment strategy that avails an opportunity for locals to manage and work its numerous franchises, provided they operate within the guidelines set by the organizations and business strategy (Ying-Chang, 2011). As such, local managers and employees are better placed to fulfill the demands and expectations of customers, providing the organization with a competitive edge over o ther industry players. Such a recruitment policy, according to Ma Allen (2009), enables the organization to reduce costs associated with recruiting expatriates to run local hotel franchises, and also enhances the organization’s capacity to recruit employees of diverse national backgrounds and host country elites. Hilton’s recruitment policies are totally cultural sensitive, implying that candidates are recruited based on their qualifications regardless not only on their age and gender, but also on their religious orientation, ethic origin and nationality (Ying-Chang et al 2011). The organization takes cognizance of the fact that as multiculturalism of workforce increases and global demand for cultural-specific services from consumers intensifies, the development and implementation of culturally sensitive recruitment techniques becomes more than ever valuable and important for players in the hotel and hospitality sector. By recognizing that cultural differences exist b etween the recruiter and potential candidates, particularly where such recruitment is done on ethnic minority groups, it is important for management to undertake consultative and participative recruitment process in line with Holfstede’s small power distance attribute of his cultural dimensions (Holfstede et al 2010). Additionally, as is the norm in Hilton’s recruitment policies, managers recruiting from diverse backgrounds should be encouraged to use variable management and organizational behavior techniques which harmonize the varying needs of culturally diverse candidates to prevent any form of discrimination and to ensure that they are able to identify talent regardless of the individual’s cultural background (Seymen 2006; Ma Allen, 2009). This implies that authority and decision-making in recruitment process must be decentralized to local subsidiaries in line with one of Holfstede’s small power distance attributes in his cultural dimensions (Holfste de et al 2010). At Hilton, recruitment is not done from the head office; rather authority to recruit key staff to run international subsidiaries is decentralized to the local managers in a bid to achieve competitive efficiencies through the recruitment of local members of staff, who are undeniably well versed with local business trends and practices (Ying-Chang et al 2011). Such a recruitment initiative facilitates the selected workers to not only respond effectively to cultural preferences in local markets but also bring into the organization high levels of creativity and innovation through diversity of perspectives and less emphasis on centralized rules (Seymen, 2006). Training Training forms one of the foremost strategies that organizations use to assist employees to increase awareness and sensitivities to culturally diverse groups with the view to enhance organizational competitiveness and success (Seymen 2006; Adu-Febiri, 2006). To borrow from the power-distance dimension of Ho lfstede’s cultural dimension, minority workers may have the perception that they are less powerful and, as such, expect organizational power and authority to be distributed unequally within the organizational context (Holfstede et al 2010). However, a strand of existing literature demonstrates that training initiatives have been successful in empowering minority employees to give their best without regard to existing cultural differences (Devine et al 2007) , hence contributing to competitive advantage. The Hilton Hotels Corp engages in bi-annual training of employees to recognize cultural differences among the workforce and to utilize them to generate advantages for the hospitality organization. In these forums, the management is involved in training employees to respect ethnic, racial, religious, gender and age differences, along with their contractual, training and employing practices (Groschl, 2011). This form of training has been instrumental in lowering employee turnove r and increasing productivity in the hospitality industry (Pinilla 2002). Formal training in cultural diversity issues has also enhanced organizational flexibility by empowering culturally diverse employees to respond effectively to multiple demands and shifting work environments that are characteristic of the hospitality industry (Richardson 2005). Apart from the bi-annual training sessions for employees, the management of different Hilton franchises publishes and disseminates booklets and brochures intended to form the basis of employee behavior during interactions within a multicultural context. Rules of engagement as well standards of etiquette are well espoused in these mediums of communication to enable the workers deal with variant situations as they arise in the work environment, leading to better cooperation and collaboration among culturally-diverse employees as well as superior customer satisfaction (The Hilton Family, n.d.). In addition, the hospitality organization trai ns foreign employees on the use of a second language, which may be the official language used by locals. Such training, according to Ma Allen (2009, facilitates faster integration between management expatriates and local members of staff, leading to achievement of competitive efficiencies. Conclusion Recommendations This paper has sufficiently demonstrated how Hilton Hotels Corp has been able to employ recruitment and training strategies to manage cultural diversity. Many organizations within the hospitality industry are increasingly becoming multicultural due to globalization trends and international migration of labor, hence the need for hospitality organizations to engage such strategies to achieve competitive advantage and effectiveness. However, it is recommended that the management of Hilton engage local stakeholders in creating an environment of inclusion and values differences, and in assigning adequate recruitment and training resources to existing diversity programs. Add itionally, it is imperative for the hospitality organization to make employees an integral component of its efforts to plan and implement cultural diversity initiatives. Reference List Adu-Febiri, F 2006, ‘The destiny of cultural diversity in a globalized world’, Review of Human Factor Studies, vol. 12 no. 1, pp. 30-64. Building and maintaining a diverse workforce 2000, Retrieved from Cox, T.H Blake, S 1991, ‘Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness’, Academy of Management Executive, vol. 5 no. 3, pp. 45-56. Devine, F, Baum, T, Hearns, N Devine, A 2007, ‘Cultural diversity in hospitality work: The Northern Ireland experience’, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 18 no. 2, pp. 333-349. Hilton Hotels Resorts 2012, Retrieved from Holfstede, G, Holfstede, G.J Minkov, M 2010, Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind, 3rd ed, Mc-Graw Hill, London. Jin-Zhao, W Jing, W 2009, ‘Issues, challenges, and trends facing hospitality industry’, Management Science Engineering, vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 53-58. Kautish, P.V 2012, ‘Paradigm of workforce diversity and human resource management’, The Indian Journal of Management, vol. 5 no. 1, pp. 37-41. Ma, R Allen, D.G 2009, ‘Recruiting across cultures: A value-based model of recruitment’, Human Resource Management Review, vol. 19 no. 4, pp. 334-346. Pinilla, G.H 2002, Are the selection methods used by the hospitality industry culturally sensitive. Web. Richardson, P 2005, ‘Managing cultural diversity for competitive advantage’, Engineering Management, vol. 15 no. 2, pp. 24-27. Roper, A Brookes, M 1997, ‘The multicultural management of international hotel groups’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 147-159. Seymen, O.A 2006, ‘The cultural diversity phenomenon in organizations and different approaches for effective cultural diversity management: A literally review’, Cross Cultural Communication: An International Journal, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 296-315. Shen, J, Chanda, A., D’Nello, B Monga, M 2009, ‘Managing diversity through human resource management: An international perspective and conceptual framework’, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 20 no. 2, pp. 235-251. Stevens, R.H Ogunji, E 2011, ‘Preparing business students for multi-cultural work environment of the future: A teaching agenda, ‘International Journal of Management, vol. 28 no. 2, pp. 528-544. The Hilton Family n.d., Where diversity works, Web. Wise, M.Z 2011, Reinventing the Hilton Hotel, Retrieved from Ying-Chang, C, Cheng, W.W Chien, C.Y 2011, ‘A case study on business performance management of Hilton Hotels Corp’, International Bus iness Research, vol. 4 no. 2, pp. 213-218. This report on Managing Cultural Diversity: A Case Analysis of Hilton Hotels Corporation was written and submitted by user Fiona Knowles to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

The Boston Massacre Hero, Crispus Attucks

The Boston Massacre Hero, Crispus Attucks The first person to die in the Boston Massacre was an African-American sailor named Crispus Attucks. Not much is known about Crispus Attucks prior to his death in 1770, but his actions that day became a source of inspiration for both white and black Americans for years to come. Attucks in Slavery Attucks was born around 1723; his father was an African slave in Boston, and his mother was a Natick Indian. His life up until he was 27 years old is a mystery, but in 1750 Deacon William Brown of Framingham, Mass., placed a notice in the Boston Gazette that his slave, Attucks, had run away. Brown offered a reward of 10 pounds as well as reimbursement for any incurred expenses to anyone who caught Attucks. The Boston Massacre No one captured Attucks, and by 1770 he was working as a sailor on a whaling ship. On March 5, he was having lunch near Boston Common along with other sailors from his ship, waiting for good weather so they could set sail. When he heard a commotion outside, Attucks went to investigate, discovering a crowd of Americans clustered near the British garrison. The crowd had gathered after a barbers apprentice accused a British soldier of not paying for a haircut. The soldier struck the boy in anger, and a number of Bostonians, seeing the incident, gathered and shouted at the soldier. Other British soldiers joined their comrade, and they stood as the crowd grew larger. Attucks joined the crowd. He took leadership of the group, and they followed him to the custom house. There, the American colonists began throwing snowballs at the soldiers guarding the customs house. The accounts of what happened next differed. A witness for the defense testified at the trials of Captain Thomas Preston and eight other British soldiers that Attucks picked up a stick and swung it at the captain and then a second soldier. The defense laid the blame for the actions of the crowd at Attucks feet, painting him as a troublemaker who incited the mob. This may have been an early form of race-baiting as other witnesses refuted this version of events. However much they were provoked, the British soldiers opened fire on the crowd that had gathered, killing Attucks first and then four others. At the trial of Preston and other soldiers, witnesses differed on whether Preston had given the order to fire or whether a lone soldier had discharged his gun, prompting his fellow soldiers to open fire. The Legacy of Attucks Attucks became a hero to the colonials during the American Revolution; they saw him as gallantly standing up to abusive British soldiers. And it is entirely possible that Attucks decided to join the crowd to take a stand against perceived British tyranny. As a sailor in the 1760s, he would have been aware of the British practice of impressing (or forcing) American colonial sailors into the service of the British navy. This practice, among others, exacerbated tensions between v and the British. Attucks also became a hero to African-Americans. In the mid-nineteenth century, African-American Bostonians celebrated Crispus Attucks Day every year on March 5. They created the holiday to remind Americans of Attucks sacrifice after blacks were declared non-citizens in the (1857)Â  Supreme Court decision. In 1888, the city of Boston erected a memorial to Attucks in Boston Common. Attucks was seen as someone who had martyred himself for American independence, even as he himself had been born into the oppressive system of American slavery. Sources Langguth, A. J. Patriots: The Men Who Started the American Revolution. New York: Simon Schuster, 1989.Lanning, Michael Lee. The African-American Soldier: From Crispus Attucks to Colin Powell. Seacus, NJ: Citadel Press, 2004.Thomas, Richard W. Life for Us Is What We Make It: Building Black Community in Detroit, 1915-1945. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1992.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

The Whys and Hows of Paraphrasing

The Whys and Hows of Paraphrasing The Whys and Hows of Paraphrasing The Whys and Hows of Paraphrasing By Mark Nichol Paraphrasing, rewording of spoken or written content, is a necessary skill for every writer. This post discusses the purposes of process of paraphrasing. Why Paraphrase? Quoting directly without attribution is plagiarism, an offense against those responsible for crafting the original message. In a scholarly setting, it constitutes academic dishonesty, which when committed by students is punished with a failing grade, suspension, or expulsion; it also compromises their future in academia. In the case of faculty or academic researchers, it signals a lack of integrity and can ruin one’s career. Even with attribution, however, extensive direct quotation in course assignments or in scholarly research is discouraged; some sources recommend that no more than 10 percent of an academic paper or article consist of exact wording from a research source. In both trade books and scholarly publishing, the same benchmarks seems appropriate; journalism is more accepting, but direct quotation consisting of more than 25 percent of an article (except in the case of a question-and-answer interview) is likely to be regarded as excessive. Why should paraphrasing predominate? The purpose of academic writing is not to exactly reproduce the findings and interpretations of others; it is to report findings and interpretations and produce commentary on them, extrapolate and evaluate, and make new inferences, as well as to synthesize multiple sources. Therefore, academic writing should summarize the work of others, reproducing content verbatim only when a strikingly original conclusion, or a statement that should be clearly attributed as exact wording, merits inclusion in the secondary work. In journalistic writing, quotations often add color and vibrancy to an article. Precise reproduction of some of a subject’s or source’s comments conveys the person’s character and personality or lends authority. However, just as with scholarly prose, direct quotation should be the exception, not the rule; the reporter’s task is to describe an event or issue or to create an impression for readers who were not present during an incident or an interview. Paraphrasing also allows reorganization of sources’ or subjects’ statements not in order to manipulate the comments with the intent to mislead, but to improve the narrative flow or place randomly uttered thoughts in coherent chronological order. This technique also enables writers to impart information that is valuable or integral but was not expressed well. How to Paraphrase Paraphrasing is simple: Read a passage from a source, or examine your notes from an interview, and imagine you’re sharing the information with others which is exactly what you’re doing. Strive to find a simpler, more direct way to describe what you’ve read; it’s acceptable to use the same word now and then, and you may occasionally employ partial direct quotations to reproduce key phrases, but always remember that your goal is to report, not reproduce. And though you may consider the source content better stated than what you can produce, be confident that your paraphrase will be good enough. How would you paraphrase a passage like the first sentence of Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address? Here’s the source material: â€Å"Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.† Lincoln’s strategy for placing the event he refers to in chronological context is eloquently poetic, but a paraphrase need only provide the context: â€Å"Almost a hundred years ago† is sufficient. The nouns identifying the actors, the locale, and the result are easily replaced with predecessors (or, more colorfully, forebears or â€Å"those who came before us†), land, and country, and â€Å"brought forth† can be rendered formed: â€Å"Those who came before in this land us formed a new country† says the same thing as the rest of the first phrase of the original. â€Å"Conceived in liberty† can be rewritten â€Å"created while fighting for freedom.† The paraphrase of the final phrase, meanwhile, could consist of the words â€Å"inspired by the idea of human equality.† The result, not as stirring, but serviceable, is reportage that says, â€Å"According to the speaker, almost a hundred years ago, those who came before us in this land formed a new country while fighting for freedom and inspired by the idea of human equality.† However, the restatement unnecessarily retains the syntax and is wordier than necessary (and wordier than the original text). Keep trying: â€Å"The speaker said that our forebears, believing in human equality, formed a new country here when they fought for freedom almost a hundred years ago.† If you wished to insert at least a few words of the original wording, you might delete the phrase about freedom and throw in â€Å"conceived in liberty,† set off by commas and framed in quotation marks, after here. As you paraphrase, keep in mind that the key to the process is distillation of the source material to its essence with or without commentary, depending on whether interpretative content is expected from the paraphrasing writer. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Freelance Writing category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:Addressing A Letter to Two People8 Proofreading Tips And TechniquesEach vs. Both

Sunday, February 16, 2020

Brain Cancer Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Brain Cancer - Research Paper Example The growth of cancer cells in the brain tissue is termed as brain cancer. A tumor or mass of cancer tissue is formed by the cancer cells. These tumors affect the functions of the brain, such as memory, muscle control and memory. Tumors are classified as malignant, when they are comprised of cancer cells. On the other hand, tumors consisting of non – cancerous cells are termed as benign (Davis & Stoppler, 2013). Furthermore, cancer cells resulting from brain tissue are termed primary brain tumors; whereas the cancer cells that spread to the brain from other sites in the body are termed as metastatic brain tumors. It has been projected, by the available statistics that brain cancer could develop in approximately 22,000 individuals per year. Moreover, 13,000 deaths could occur due to cancer (Davis & Stoppler, 2013). Symptoms Individuals with glial origin tumors depict general, non – focal signs and symptoms, or focal manifestations pertaining to the specific region of the brain where the tumor is located. The most frequently observed symptoms among such individuals include headache, nausea, vomiting, generalized seizures and alterations in the level of consciousness. Headache tends to accompany several instances of brain tumors; nevertheless, only a few individuals with headache have a brain tumor (Pan & Prados, 2003). Headache tends to be the sole symptom in a fifth of the patients with brain tumors. Such headaches vary between moderate to severe, tend to be intermittent, and pronounced to a greater degree in the early morning, or increase with coughing and other actions that enhance the intracranial pressure. Headaches that are associated with increased intracranial pressure tend to be generalized, non – focal and non – lateralizing to the location of the tumor. Furthermore, tumors can be localized by headaches that are not associated with enhanced intracranial pressure (Pan & Prados, 2003). In 15% of the cases, the initial manifestat ions of brain tumors are seizures. In addition, 30% of the individuals with brain tumors could develop seizures in the long run. Usually, seizures transpire along with the slower developing and superficial tumors that involve the sensorimotor cortex (Pan & Prados, 2003). Some of the rapidly developing brain tumors may not present seizures as a distinguishing feature, but may do so eventually. With respect to adults, the onset of a new seizure necessitates neuroimaging, so as to eliminate the presence of a brain tumor as the underlying cause. Brain tumors have been seen to prevail to the extent of 10% among patients suffering with generalized seizures (Pan & Prados, 2003). With regard to children, seizures had been observed to result from intracranial tumors in less than a hundredth of the instances. This could be indicative of the fact that the majority of the central nervous system lesions in children transpire infratentorially. All the same, if a child exhibits seizures that tend to be difficult to control, then magnetic resonance imaging techniques have to be used, in order to evaluate the condition. In general, the brain tumors that cause seizures in children tend to be slow growing neoplasms (Pan & Prados, 2003). Increase in intracranial pressure can cause vomiting in a patient with glial tumors. On rare occasions, such vomiting can be due to invasion by the tumor of the vagal nucleus in the posterior fossa. Sometimes, a rapid